Disambiguation and its role in SEO

"Disambiguation is a noun and refers to the removal of ambiguity in words and sentences by making something clear. Disambiguation narrows down the meaning of words which is a good thing when referring to its use in search engine optimisation."
If you have used Google (I know, silly question), you will have noticed that as you type in your query that Google tries to "predict" or anticipate what you are looking for based upon its search algorithm. As a part of this algorithm, Google is trying to disambiguate or find clarity on your request.
screenshot disambiguation
 Google tries to look into your "Intent" when you type your query into the search area, what is it that you are actually asking, for example if you had typed in "Birmingham", if it knew your location (location based services), and you are in the UK, it may bring up Birmingham city, Birmingham airport etc. However if no location was know it may bring up some of the following Birmingham, Alabama, the largest city in Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama (Amtrak station), known as Birmingham station, Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman Combined Statistical Area, Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport, Birmingham, Connecticut, Birmingham, Kentucky, a sunken town, Birmingham, Indiana, Birmingham, Iowa, Birmingham, Kansas, Birmingham, Michigan, Birmingham, Michigan (Amtrak station), former station known as Birmingham station, Birmingham Missouri, Birmingham New Jersey, Birmingham Coshocton County Ohio, Birmingham, Erie County Ohio, Birmingham, Guernsey County Ohio, Birmingham, Chester County Pennsylvania, Birmingham Huntingdon County  Pennsylvania, Birmingham Township Schuyler County Illinois, Birmingham (Pittsburgh) and many other towns and cities around the world Etc.
You can now see how disambiguation either by making the query that is presented more complex, or adding clarifying criteria such as state or country to the above query would have made it far easier and faster to locate the desired information.
However this can also be done by adding rich snippets of data to your content or by ensuring that the content is written in such a way to assist in the disambiguation of your content is a great way of improving your content for organic seo.
Careful thought to the content, headers and sub headings will assist search engines to index your site data correctly and the benefits that can be derived.
Bill Slawski has written a great article on disambiguation and it and can be found here: http://www.seobythesea.com/2015/09/disambiguate-entities-in-queries-and-pages/
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